A、 Cherry planting technology protocols
Quality seedlings are the basis of cherry production. The quality of seedlings not only directly affects the growth of the tree, the early and late results and the yield. And the tree’s adaptability and resistance to adversity also has a great impact. Therefore, the production should pay attention to the breeding of high-quality, robust seedlings.
B、The choice of cherry rootstock
There are many types of cherry rootstocks, mainly the Chinese cherry Laiyang dwarf cherry and large-leaved grass cherry, hairy sour, Mahaley and Kauto, etc.. It has been proved that the large-leafed grass cherry has good adaptability to soil and is most suitable for growing in sandy loam or gravelly loam soil. It has good resistance to root cancer disease. Grafting affinity with big cherry varieties, deep root distribution and more thick roots. The grafted cherry grows robustly, good ground fixation, not easy to fall, easy to yield. Therefore, the production of large-leaved grass cherry as a rootstock for the breeding of large cherries.
C、Cherry nursery selection and finishing
Breeding cherry new varieties of nursery land. It is best to choose the windward and sunny, fertile soil, no heavy crop, no waterlogging, good drainage. Also have watering conditions of neutral loam or sandy loam soil.
Seedling nursery land, to be in the winter before the 5000-6000 g / square meters, sprinkling fertilizer, after application of deep planing. The following spring before the seedling, and then plowed over, raked flat fine, for the border.
D、Cherry rootstock breeding methods
The rootstock of large-leaved cherry is prone to produce a large number of rootstock seedlings around the rootstock. In production, people often use it as a rootstock for cherry by propagating it by division. The method is: in spring and summer, the rootstock seedlings will grow around the root system. Cultivate about 30 cm thick soil for rooting. After autumn or before germination the following spring, people separate the rooted sprouting tillers from the plants. Plant them centrally or plant them in the nursery for grafting big cherries.
Production of large cherry rootstock seedlings crimped propagation methods, mainly upright crimping and horizontal crimping.
E、Cherry seedling grafting
Seedling grafting generally divided into “T”-shaped budding and plate budding.
1、”T” shaped budding
“T”-shaped budding appropriate time, divided into pre and post. The first 15-20 days in the first half of June. Late in the end of mid-July to August. Sometimes it can continue until mid-September for about 50 days. Grafting too early, the scion is young, the skin layer is thin, and the buds do not develop fully. Grafting too late, the branches have stopped growing, the buds are not easy to peel. mid-July is the “rainy” season, easy to glue, the interface is difficult to heal. Mastering bud splicing time, is one of the keys to improve the survival rate.
This method works all year round. Grafting with rootstock thickness should be more than 0.7 cm, the scion should be collected 1 year old branches, choose full buds for grafting buds. Grafting, in the rootstock base about 10 cm from the ground, choose a smooth part. Along the vertical direction, gently cut about 2.5 cm long, about 2 mm deep long oval cutting surface. When cutting the scion, cut 1.5 cm below the scion bud, gently cut the bud piece from the scion, and cut a long oval bud piece about 2.5 cm long and 2 mm thick. Then, we just put the bud pieces firmly on the cutting surface of the rootstock and wrap it tightly with plastic film tape to tie it tightly.
F、The cherry post-joint management
1、Untie at the right time
About half a month after grafting to check whether the buds are alive, if the buds are fresh, some expansion, indicating that has been alive. Not viable should be timely replenishment, viable buds generally about 25 days to untie the strip, so as not to affect the sprouting of the buds.
2、Cut anvil in addition to bud
After grafting or spring budding, cut the anvil at 1 cm above the scion. In the rootstock sprouting, to promptly erase the sprout on the rootstock, in order to promote the sprouting growth of the scion. Later, there are 3-4 times in a row to remove the bud. When the new growth reaches more than 20 cm, people usually insert a pillar next to the seedling. Then, people use hemp rope or plastic film tape to tie the new shoots to the pillar, which can prevent the new shoots from breaking in high winds.
3、Cherry fertilization management
In order to promote the growth of cherry seedlings, so we need to strengthen the fertilizer management. According to the drought and the growth of the seedlings, watering and fertilizing in time. Nitrogen fertilizer is the main fertilizer in the early stage, and phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in the later stage. People watered after each fertilizer and weeded with frequent mid-tillage. The whole growing season can also be 2-3 times outside the root chasing fertilizer. It can improve the overwintering cold resistance of seedlings and prevent draining. In the later stage, water control and fertilizer control should be appropriate so that the seedlings do not grow greedy and the tissue is not full.
4、Cherry pest control
Cherry seedlings during the growth of pests and diseases to improve control. After sprouting, we should strictly prevent the small gray weevil. In June and July, you can choose to use the dilution of thiophanate-methyl emulsion or deltamethrin emulsion to prevent the damage of heartworm. 1-2 times in July and August, you can spray the dilution of wettable powder of zinc daidze, zinc multi-manganese dilution and zinc sulfate lime solution. Prevent bacterial perforation disease and early leaf drop. Leafroller moth, stinging moth and other pests, can spray mirex 3 dilution or dichlorvos emulsion dilution to control.
5、Cherry root necrosis phenomenon treatment
Vertical blight, root rot. Stand blight can be prevented by spraying methomyl, chlorothalonil, etc. Rot disease with methylthioxin or carbendazim, etc. to control.
G、The cherry fertilizer selection
The cherry tree grows rapidly, and the development stages are obvious and concentrated. The growth of branches and leaves and flowering and fruiting are concentrated in the first half of the growing season. The bud differentiation is mostly completed within a short time after the fruit harvest. Chinese cherries take about 50 days from flowering to harvest and sweet cherries about 60 days. For this reason, it is important to apply fertilizer early according to the characteristics of cherries and to catch the base fertilizer, flower fertilizer and post-fruit fertilizer. In general, the amount of nitrogen fertilizer should be small, the proportion of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer should be large, and organic fertilizer should be more.
Early in the fall, not later than November. Fertilizer, animal and human urine, soil fertilizer can be applied. Generally, 30-60 kg of animal and human urine or 100 kg of circle fertilizer are applied to young trees and trees in the first fruiting season. For mature cherry trees, 60 to 80 kg of animal and human urine or 200 kg of circle fertilizer is applied.
Fertilizer is applied before the cherry blossoms or during the first fast growing period of the fruit. Mainly with fast-acting nitrogen fertilizer. It can improve the fruiting rate, promote the growth of branch tips and leaf fat, and lay a good foundation for flower bud differentiation. If in the early flowering leaf spray 1 to 2 times 0.5% of urea, plus 0.5% of boron fertilizer or 600 times of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, more increase the fruit rate.
After the fruit picking supplemental fertilizer, can enhance the cherry tree storage nutrients and promote the flower bud differentiation. After fruit picking, the cherry tree from the flowering and fruiting, branching and leafing of the nutrient consumption stage into the nutrient accumulation stage. At the same time, it starts to enter the qualitative phase of bud differentiation. Therefore, the main type of supplemental fertilizer is fast-acting fertilizer. For example, human manure and urine, soybean cake and chemical fertilizer. The amount of fertilizer can be determined according to the age and crown size of the cherry and how much fruit is produced. Generally, 60-80 kg of well-rotted human manure and urine, 2.5-3 kg of well-rotted soybean cake, 1.5 kg of ammonium sulfate and 0.5-1 kg of urea are applied to the plant. Can also be foliar spraying.
H、The growth characteristics of cherry trees
Cherry trees have the characteristics of rapid tree growth, branch growth, flowering and fruiting are concentrated in the first half of the growing season. This period both to grow and a lot of results. Cherry trees consume a lot of nutrients. Moreover, bud differentiation is generally completed within a short period of time after fruit picking. Therefore, the cherry tree fertilization has the following characteristics.
1、Pay attention to pre-fertilization
Cherry flowering to fruit ripening only 40 ~ 60 days, the need for nutrient concentration. Therefore, the fertilization management, in addition to the autumn application of fertilizer, should also be carried out before budding, fruit development early fertilization. The first time mainly apply fast-acting nitrogen fertilizer. The second application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer or special fertilizer for fruit trees. At present, the market with more compound fertilizer is produced by the Nagric company.
2、Pay attention to post-harvest fertilization
Cherry fruit after harvest. In order to enhance the accumulation of nutrients and promote the differentiation of flower buds, you can apply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer.
3、Apply sufficient base fertilizer
The early application in autumn is appropriate. Generally, in September~October every year, combined with tillage, apply 2000~5000 kg of organic fertilizer per 667 square meters.
4、Fertilizer outside the root
Spray 0.3% urea, 0.1~0.2% borax, 0.2~0.4% potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixture at the flowering stage, which has a good effect on increasing yield.
Cherry trees have undeveloped vertical roots and shallow root distribution in the soil, but developed horizontal roots. Fertilization during the growth period, in order to reduce injury to the roots, can radial ditching concentrated hole application.