1、Basic technical information
Drip irrigation and fertilization technology is a new agricultural technology that integrates irrigation and fertilization into one. Drip irrigation and fertilization is the use of pressure irrigation system. The fertilizer solution made of soluble solid fertilizer or liquid fertilizer is evenly and accurately delivered to the soil of crop roots together with irrigation water. It uses irrigation fertilization technology. It can be designed in accordance with the crop growth requirements for the whole reproductive period, and provide water and nutrients directly to the crop in a quantitative, regular and proportional manner.
2、Technology demonstration and promotion situation
The recommended technology has achieved a larger scale of popularization and application. The technology of drip irrigation and fertilization mode has been promoted nationwide, and the area of promotion is increasing.
3、Improve quality and efficiency
Drip irrigation and fertilization technology can reduce water infiltration and evaporation and improve water utilization. Under open-air conditions, micro-irrigation fertilization can save about 50% of water compared with large water irrigation. Under protected cultivation conditions, drip irrigation fertilization saves 30%-40% of water compared with border irrigation.
Drip irrigation fertilization technology realizes balanced fertilization and concentrated fertilization. It also reduces fertilizer volatilization and loss, as well as the loss caused by excess nutrients. It has the advantages of easy fertilization, timely fertilizer supply, easy crop absorption and improved fertilizer utilization. In the case of similar or the same crop yield, drip irrigation fertilization saves 40%-50% of chemical fertilizer compared with traditional fertilization technology.
③ Reduce the occurrence of pests and diseases
The reduction of air humidity suppresses the occurrence of crop diseases to a large extent. It also reduces the input of pesticides and the labor input for disease control. Micro-irrigation fertilization reduces pesticide dosage by 15-30% per mu and saves 15-20 laborers.
④Increase yield and improve quality
Drip irrigation and fertilization technology can increase crop yield and improve product quality. Orchard generally increases yield by 15%-24%, and facility cultivation increases yield by 17%-28%. Take cucumber cultivated in Meris district facilities as an example. Drip irrigation fertilization reduces deformed melons by 21% compared with conventional border irrigation fertilization. Normal melon mu increased 560 kg. The yield of cucumber increased by 180 kg per mu and the output value increased by 810 yuan per mu. The economic benefits of drip irrigation fertilization technology include yield increase, quality improvement and input saving. Orchard generally saves input 200-300 yuan per mu and increases yield and income by 200-500 yuan per mu. Facility cultivation generally saves 300-600 yuan of input per mu. Among them, saving water and electricity 80-110 yuan. Save fertilizer 110-220 yuan. While save pesticide 70-100 yuan. Save labor 100-150 yuan. Increase yield and income by 500-1500 yuan.
1、Drip irrigation and fertilization planting mode core technology
First dissolve the fertilizer with water and then add it to the pipeline irrigation system. In the irrigation at the same time, the fertilizer delivery to the crop roots, the right amount at the right time to meet the crop water and fertilizer needs of a new modern agricultural technology. Generally speaking, drip irrigation fertilization means that where the roots of the crop are, the pipeline is passed to where the water and fertilizer will be delivered. The application of drip irrigation fertilization can save more than 40% of water and increase the utilization rate of fertilizer by more than 20%. This technology can improve the ground temperature, maintain soil moisture, save water, fertilizer and labor.
According to water source, terrain, planting area and crop type, choose different micro-irrigation fertilization system. Protected land cultivation, open field melon and vegetable cultivation, field cash crop cultivation generally choose drip irrigation and fertilization system. Fertilizer application device for protected land generally chooses venturi fertilizer, differential pressure fertilizer tank or fertilizer injection pump. Orchard generally choose micro spray fertilization system. Fertilizer application device generally choose fertilizer injection pump, and automatic irrigation and fertilizer application system can be chosen in places with conditions.
① Determination of micro-irrigation system
Determine the irrigation quota according to the water requirement of the planted crop and the precipitation during the crop reproductive period. The irrigation quota for open-field micro-irrigation and fertilization should be reduced by 50% compared with large water irrigation. The irrigation quota for fertilization by drip irrigation in protected areas should be reduced by 30%-40% compared with that of greenhouse border irrigation. After the irrigation quota is determined, based on the crop water demand, precipitation and soil moisture to determine the irrigation period, the number of times and the amount of irrigation each time.
② Determination of fertilization system
There are significant differences between drip irrigation fertilization technology and traditional fertilization technology. A reasonable drip irrigation fertilization system firstly determines the total fertilization amount, the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and the ratio of base fertilizer and chasing fertilizer according to the fertilization law of the planted crop, the fertility level of the plot and the target yield. The fertilizer for the base fertilizer is applied before land preparation, while the number and quantity of follow-up fertilizers are determined according to the fertilizer requirements of different crops during the growing period. The implementation of micro-irrigation fertilization technology can increase the utilization rate of fertilizer by 40%-50%. Therefore, the amount of fertilizer used for micro-irrigation fertilization is 50%-60% of conventional fertilization.
③ Fertilizer selection
Micro-irrigation fertilization system applies the same base fertilizer as conventional fertilization. It can include a variety of organic fertilizers and a variety of chemical fertilizers. However, the fertilizer species for micro-irrigation fertilization must be soluble fertilizer, that is, water-soluble fertilizer. The water-soluble fertilizer that is currently used more in the market is produced by Nagric. Urea, ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate, potassium chloride and other fertilizers that meet national standards or industry standards. Higher purity, less impurities, no precipitation when dissolved in water, all can be used as chasing fertilizers. Supplementary phosphorus generally uses soluble fertilizers such as potassium dihydrogen phosphate as a follow-up fertilizer. Supplementary micronutrient fertilizer, generally can not be used at the same time with phosphorus chasing fertilizer. In order to avoid the formation of insoluble phosphate precipitation, blocking the drip or nozzle.
④ Matching technology
The implementation of drip irrigation and fertilization technology, while using crop seeds, pest control and field management techniques. We can also use mulching techniques depending on the crop. Formation of drip irrigation under the membrane and other forms, give full play to the advantages of water and fertilizer saving. Achieve the purpose of increasing crop yield, improving crop quality and increasing benefits.
Technology suitable for the promotion and application of the region. The technology is suitable for wells, reservoirs, cisterns and other fixed water sources, and good water quality, in line with the requirements of micro-irrigation. And have built or have the conditions to build micro-irrigation facilities to promote the application of the region. Mainly applicable to the cultivation of agricultural facilities, orchards and cultivation of cotton and other field cash crops, as well as other crops with good economic benefits.
1、Adopt a reasonable irrigation system
Because of the low flow rate of drip irrigation, users often do not see the irrigation process. It leads to long irrigation time and deep seepage. Therefore, it is important to understand the irrigation system’s irrigation intensity, plant water demand and soil field water holding capacity to better irrigate according to plant needs. Use soil moisture monitor to monitor soil moisture and view the data on your cell phone to judge.
2、Pressure and flow gauges required
These simple devices can help users to irrigation system “pulse”. It can solve the problem of drip irrigation system that you cannot accurately judge by the naked eye. Use the pressure gauge to check the pressure at the beginning, middle and end of the drip irrigation pipe. Compare the design pressure or water pressure history to determine drip irrigation system problems. A flow meter can help the user to quickly determine the flow rate of the water source. In addition, the flow rate data helps to calculate the actual flow rate and the historical flow rate of the irrigation system.
3、Equipped with filtration equipmentd
Commonly used filters include centrifugal filters, screen filters, stacked filters, gravel filters, etc. Filtration equipment is necessary for drip irrigation and fertilization applications. Before starting to install the filtration system, the physical and chemical composition of the water should be analyzed. Use the appropriate filtration facilities according to the water quality, and check the screen inside the screen filter often. If we find damage, we need to repair or replace it promptly. Also choose a drip head with anti-clogging properties.
4、Water and fertilizer synchronization
Through the drip irrigation system for fertilization, water and fertilizer synchronization is the biggest advantage of drip irrigation. Plant root growth has to water, fertilizer, fertilizer with irrigation water application efficiency is the highest. But the use of fertilizer irrigation system to prevent fertilizer backflow device, to prevent fertilizer pollution of groundwater and other water sources.