A. Eggplant is an annual herb
It is a perennial shrub in the tropics. Eggplant has a well-developed root system, with adult plants reaching a root depth of more than 1.5 m and a lateral root diameter of more than 1 m. The root system of eggplant cultivated in protected areas is mainly distributed in the 0-30 cm tillage layer. The root system of eggplant has poor regeneration ability and early lignification, so it should not be transplanted several times.
B. Eggplant has relatively strict temperature requirements
① Below l7℃ the growing year is slow, below 10℃ cause physiological metabolism dysregulation below 15℃ drop flowers.
②The appropriate temperature for bud differentiation is 20℃-25℃ at night and 15℃-20℃ at night. When the temperature is low, bud differentiation is delayed, but more long column flowers.
③In the high temperature condition, the bud differentiation was early. But the proportion of medium and short column flowers increased, especially more short column flowers at high night temperature.
④Since the appropriate temperature is 22℃-30℃, 25℃-28℃ at daytime and 16℃-20℃ at night, it is favorable for eggplant development.
C. Fertilizer requirements of eggplant
Eggplant is a fertilizer-loving crop, and soil condition and fertilization level have a great influence on the fruiting rate of eggplant. When the nutritional conditions are good, less flowering and poor nutrition will increase short column flowers, poorly developed flowering apparatus and unsuitable for fruit set. In addition nutritional status also affects the location of flowering. When the nutrition is sufficient, the flowering part of the branch can be unfolded 4-5 leaves, sue poor nutrition when the unfolded leaves are few, flowering increased.
D. Eggplant absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
The absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the seedling stage is only 0.05%, 0.07% and 0.09% of the total ounce. The amount of nutrient uptake at the beginning of flowering gradually increases, and the amount of nutrient uptake from the fruiting stage to the unfruiting stage accounts for more than 90% of the whole period, of which the fruiting stage accounts for about 2/3.
E. Different nutrient requirements for each reproductive stage
However, fertilizers in the early reproductive stage mainly promote the nutritional growth of the plant. Therefore, as fertility progresses, nutrient delivery to flowers and fruits increases.
(1) Flowering stage
The uptake of nitrogen and potassium increases significantly, and this period if nitrogen is insufficient. Flower development is poor, short column flowers increase and yield decreases.
(2) Production of 1000 kg of eggplant
Need 3.2 kg of pure nitrogen, 0.94 kg of phosphorus pentoxide and 4.5 kg of potassium oxide.
(3) Produce 4000-5000kg of eggplant per mu
12.8-16 kg of pure nitrogen, 3.8-4.7 kg of phosphorus pentoxide and 18-22.5 kg of potassium oxide are required.
F. Eggplant fertilization technology
1, seedling fertilizer eggplant seedlings on nutrient soil requirements
Only on high quality nutrient soil can we produce strong seedlings with short internodes, thick stems and well-developed root systems.
2. In 11 square meters of seedling bed
Apply 200 kg of well-rotted and sieved organic fertilizer, 5 kg of calcium superphosphate and 1.5 kg of potassium sulfate. Mix the bed soil with organic and chemical fertilizers.
3. Nursery seedlings in nutrient soil
Organic fertilizer consisting of 4/5 well-rotted horse manure mixed with 1/5 well-rotted dried human manure can added to the garden soil in medium quantity. You can also refer to the method of preparing nutrient soil for tomato seedlings.
4. Low temperature or insufficient soil fertilizer supply
You can spray 0.3%-0.5% urea aqueous solution or Hengnuo swabbing acid foliar fertilizer (eggplant foliar fertilizer).
G. Prevention and control of Sudden collapse disease can covered with medicinal soil
The medicinal soil is made of 8-10g of 50% carbendazim or tolbutazin, mixed with 12kg of nutrients. The soil can spread on the bed at once before the seedlings emerge. It can also used 2/3 spread on the bed before sowing and l/3 spread on the seeds when sowing. Sometimes the medicine has an inhibitory effect on the root growth of seedlings. Once the inhibitory effect occurs, a lot of multiple watering can relieve it.
H. Base fertilizer eggplant infected with yellow wilt disease
Cultivation of eggplant in protected areas should avoid heavy crops. If the stubble interval is short, make sure to disinfect the protected land.
1. Disinfection method of eggplant
According to the space in the protected land, use 4.0 grams of sulfur, 0.1 grams of 80% dichlorvos and 8.0 grams of sawdust per cubic meter and then light it on fire, close it for 24 hours and then release the wind.
2. Protected land after disinfection
Firstly, 5000-6000 kg of well-rotted organic fertilizer per mu, plus 25-35 kg of calcium superphosphate and 15-20 kg of potassium sulfate. The same is then evenly scattered on the soil surface and evenly harrowed into the cultivated soil layer in combination with tilling.
3、Chase fertilizer for eggplant
Before planting, apply 5,000 kg of organic fertilizer and 25-35 kg of phosphorus fertilizer to mu. When the ovary expands after flower fertilization to reveal flowers and so on, the fruit starts to grow rapidly, and the first fertilization is carried out at this time.
However, mu apply 4-5 kg of pure nitrogen (urea 9-11 kg or sulfuric acid according to 20-25 kg) plus foliar chasing fertilizer spraying Hengnuo amino acid foliar fertilizer (eggplant foliar fertilizer) or chasing DiGuang high potassium type large amount of element water soluble fertilizer. It is fertilized for the second time when the fruit is expanded.
5. When “four-sided bucket” starts to develop
It is the peak of eggplant’s fertilizer needs, so the third fertilizer is applied. The amount of fertilizer for the first three times is the same, and the amount of fertilizer for the next three times can reduced by half, and potassium fertilizer can also dispensed with.