A、Fertilization characteristics of banana
Bananas need a lot of fertilizer and have a well-developed but shallowly distributed root system. Nitrogen fertilizer can promote the early flowering of banana and increase the yield significantly. Potassium fertilizer is a necessary component for the synthesis of pseudostem and leaf fiber. Banana needs the most potassium fertilizer, followed by nitrogen fertilizer and the least phosphorus fertilizer. While the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is 4:1:14. For varieties with high culms, the potassium to nitrogen ratio is low. For varieties with short culms, the potassium to nitrogen ratio is high. The potassium to nitrogen ratio is low in the early stage and high in the late stage.
The leaves of banana trees are light green or yellow-green. Small and thin, with reddish leaf sheaths, leaf pings and mid-assist. The leaves are slow to grow and the spacing is short.
2、Deficiency of potassium
The leaves of banana trees are broken, the fruits are early yellow and the old leaves lose their green color. The middle helper is bent and the leaf blade is curled back to the leaf base.
Banana tree phosphorus deficiency. The new leaves are slow to draw out, and the old leaves lose green at the edge. Then, purple spots appear. Finally, it converges into jagged dead spots and the petiole is broken.
The lateral veins of the young leaves of banana tree become thicker, especially those near the leaf helper. Then the leaf margins near the tip of the leaf lose their green color. Also shows that the new leaves only have the middle help and the leaf blade is not carved.
Banana tree leaf margin to the middle help gradually become yellow,while leaf order change, leaf sheath edge necrosis loose handle.
Banana’s young leaves leaf yellowing. Then, there is block jaundice at the leaf margin and thickening of lateral veins, similar to calcium deficiency.
B、Fertilization technique of banana
1、Fertilization of newly planted bananas
When transplanting, apply organic fertilizer of well-rotted chicken manure + urea + calcium + potassium sulfate or compound fertilizer. About 20 days after planting in spring. When the seedlings have 1~2 new leaves, start to apply thin manure water or urea solution. In May, a late spring fertilizer is applied to promote the growth of banana seedlings and cultivate strong seedlings. 22~24 new leaves are produced in July~August, when the banana plant has entered the bud differentiation period. Therefore, heavy fertilizer is applied twice in July~September to promote flower bud differentiation and young spike formation.
In between the two heavy fertilizers, three thin fertilizers were applied. During this period, the fertilizer was applied to promote the growth of flowering spikes and to promote the production of sucking buds of banana. By September, 85% of the fertilizer will have been applied throughout the year. 1~2 times of fruit fertilizer will be applied in October. And 1 time of cold fertilizer will be applied in November to lay a good foundation for strong fruit and banana plant overwintering. The number of fertilizer application is 12~15 times in 10 months of the year. Among them, 5 times of heavy fertilizer and 7~10 times of thin fertilizer.
a、Apply heavy fertilizer
2-10 kg of organic fertilizer of well-rotted chicken manure + 150 grams of urea + 500~1000 grams of general calcium + 200 grams of potassium sulfate or 400~500 grams of compound fertilizer. At present, the compound fertilizer used more in the market is produced by Nagric.
b. Apply thin fertilizer
50~60g of urea + 0~50g of common calcium + 200g of potassium sulfate or 200~400g of compound fertilizer.
According to the soil measurements, most of the soils in which bananas grow have not planted bananas for many years before. 140~150 plants/acre, while target yield 4.5~5 tons. The total fertilizer application was controlled at 618~923 grams of nitrogen. 286~397 grams of phosphorus and 950~1385 grams of potassium per plant.
②Summer and autumn planting
After planting bananas in the first year, apply thin fertilizer 3~4 times until winter. Cultivate strong seedlings and apply 1 over cold heavy fertilizer in late October. This can provide nutrients for late nutritional growth and enhance the overwintering ability of banana plants. In the first year, apply one early spring heavy fertilizer in early March to accelerate the late nutritional growth and provide sufficient nutrients for the transfer to the bud differentiation period. April to May has entered bud differentiation, we can reapply bud differentiation fertilizer in 2 times in April to June or May to July. During this period, we can chase 3 times of thin fertilizer to promote the banana plant to draw buds early and strong, and provide enough nutrients for making strong seedlings. in October, we can chase 3 times of thin fertilizer again to make strong fruits.
At the same time, it can also promote the pre-nutritional and mid-term growth of the next banana plant, with a heavy application of overwintering fertilizer at the end of October and a thin pre-wintering fertilizer in December to lay the foundation for the later nutritional growth of the next banana plant. For 17 months in two years, bananas are fertilized 14-15 times. Among them, 5 times are heavy fertilizer and 9~10 times are thin fertilizer.
2. Fertilization of plantain in the single plant
Fertilization of plantain is different from the cultivation of spring and summer plantains.
①Spring and summer plantain
Apply early spring fertilizer once in early March to accelerate the development of fruit and the pre-nutritional growth of the current plant, and apply thin fertilizer three times from March to May and heavy fertilizer once in late May. From July to September, the total number of leaves grows to 28-30, which means the flower bud differentiation has started.
At this time, we should apply 2 times of heavy fertilizer to promote the formation of young spikes of the current plantain plant and the extraction of the next plantain. We apply 1~2 times of strong fruit fertilizer in September~October. At the end of October, we should apply a heavy fertilizer to the seedlings, and in December, we should apply a thin fertilizer to promote the fruit development of the current plant and the pre-nutritional growth of the next plant. While fertilize 13-14 times throughout the year Among them, 5 times are heavy fertilizer and 9 times are thin fertilizer.
② Plantain planting
In the beginning of March, we apply one heavy fertilizer in early spring to promote the late nutritional growth of the plantain plant. And from April to July, we can apply bud differentiation fertilizer in two times. It can promote the differentiation of flower buds of the current banana plant and the growth of the next banana plant.
At the same time, we applied three thin fertilizers between heavy fertilizers. While one thin fertilizer from August to October to promote the fruit development of the banana plant and the middle growth of the next banana plant before nutrition. And one thin fertilizer from the end of October to December to enhance the overwintering ability of the banana plant and promote the late growth of the next banana plant. While fertilize 12 times throughout the year. Including 5 times heavy fertilizer and 7 times thin fertilizer.
3、Fertilization of plantain
Fertilization of plantain should be based on the word early and sufficient.
The first year of new banana planting, in addition to the base fertilizer, must also be early fertilization, diligent fertilization. The amount of fertilizer applied throughout the year exceeds that of single plantain by 1/4~1/3, and the number of fertilizer applications exceeds that of single plantain by 2~4 times.
①Fertilization method of the first year
In the first year, we start to apply thin fertilizer 10~20 days after planting, 4 times in March~April to promote the early and fast growth of banana plant, 1 time of heavy fertilizer in late spring in early May to accelerate the growth of banana plant in the middle of pre-nutrition, 2 times of thin fertilizer in May~June to accelerate the growth of banana plant in the late nutrition and to promote the production of strong buds in the next plant, 2 times of heavy fertilizer in July~September to promote the differentiation of flower buds and the formation of young spikes in the first plant and to accelerate the growth of banana plant in the middle of pre-nutrition.
We can apply 3 times of thin fertilizer from August to October to promote early buds and strong buds. At the same time, it accelerates the growth of the second plantain plant. We can apply 1 over-chilling fertilizer at the end of October. Subsequently, we applied one more thin fertilizer to lay the foundation for strong fruit in the first planting and nutritious late growth of the banana plant in the second planting. This will ensure a smooth overwintering of the fruit and the banana plant.
② Fertilization method of the second year
In the second year, a heavy application of early spring fertilizer in February to March can accelerate the late growth of the second plant and promote the production of strong buds in the third plant. While we applied a thin fertilizer once in July to promote fruit development in the second plant and nutritional late growth of the second banana plant. From August to October, you can reapply two summer and autumn fertilizers, and also chase three times of thin fertilizer to promote the differentiation of flower buds of the third plantain plant. Likewise, we follow up with two thin fertilizers from November to December, which will promote fruit development in the second plant.
In the first year, we need to fertilize for only 10 months. We applied 15 times in total, including 5 heavy fertilizers and 10 thin fertilizers. While in the second year, 14 times in 12 months, including 5 times of heavy fertilizer and 9 times of thin fertilizer.